what are the important concepts of cross cultural adaptation

Between 30 and 40 respondents are viewed as appropriate in the pretest [3, 4]. 2007, 41: 665-673. Cross-cultural differences allow us the opportunity to become more aware of and more conscious about how we negotiate and what is at stake as we do. Methods: A questionnaire was needed for the implementation of a study in Norway 2007. Multivariate Behavioral Research. In the OMT group the model was adjusted to allow covariance between error 1 and 6 (MI = 11.014). The research team identified four main concepts within the study instrument. The failure of the original scale highlights the importance of adapting instruments to current research settings. In Norway an instrument that measured staff attitudes towards opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) was needed for a study. Most are subjects of sharp discussions. Hinderances to cross-cultural competence often arise due to the following reasons: Effective cross-cultural communication begins with the understanding that the sender and receiver of a message are from different cultures. The original scale was developed in the 1990s. There will always be some differences between time-periods and settings, and in many cases, cross-cultural adaptation is recommended even for well established questionnaires. 1997, 1: 41-58. The adaptation of the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) for use in Turkey offers a chance to examine the implications of invariance for cross‐cultural validity, and to consider how the relevant analysis may be subsumed into the adaptation process. Cronbach's alpha for the "Abstinence-orientation" scale was α = 0.89 [7]. Cross-cultural adaptation of research instruments: language, setting, time and statistical considerations. A third person reviewed the two translated versions and synthesized the two versions into one. The 14-item "Abstinence-orientation" scale contained two almost perfectly correlated dimensions: attitudes towards abstinence-oriented policies and support for disciplinary actions if programme rules were broken [7]. Competence is often mistaken for knowledge or skill. The pretest was not conducted according to suggested guidelines [2–5]. In this section cross-cultural adaptation process of self-reported measures are briefly overviewed. Cross-cultural research has become important in the fields of education and psychology, and articles addressing translation and adaptation over the past 30 years have increased by … Staff (n=140) from the national OMT programme and harm reduction services (n=180) in Oslo were invited to participate. The additional items enabled the researchers to find two new attitudinal scales that were valid in the Norwegian setting. This means that the structure of the instrument was the same as in the original. The researcher was present during the completion of the questionnaires in all except one OMT centre and five harm reduction facilities. PubMed  This process of adjusting to a new culture is called cultural adaptation. Heroin Addiction & Related Clinical Problems. Caplehorn JR, Irwig L, Saunders JB: Attitudes and beliefs of staff working in methadone maintenance clinics. 1981, 18: 39-50. Part of This process is called cross-cultural adaptation. Furthermore we want to thank all those that provided feedback and had suggestions to additional statements in the development of a Norwegian scale. Oslo. Exploratory factor analyses were completed using principal axis and oblique rotation methods (promax). volume 10, Article number: 13 (2010) receiver of a message are from different cultures. Questionnaires were mailed out via email and postal mail. Most are subjects of sharp discussions. Subsequently both original and new items were assessed using exploratory factor analysis. Google Scholar. Based upon previous research it may be that the debate has moved on to other issues. TLI also addresses the issues of wrongful rejection or acceptance of a model due to sample size [23, 26]. 2005, New York: Guilford Press. cross-cultural adaptation of a research instrument using the adaptation process of an attitudinal instrument as an example. p.393-405 Mark; Abstract In recent years, outcome assessment following different therapeutic procedures has increasingly focused on the patient's perspective. The study had a cross-sectional multicenter design. Multivariate Behavioral Research. A sum score was calculated for each of the two attitudinal scales by dividing the number of completed items by the total score [7]. Achieving conceptual definition and equivalence forms the foundation for the cross- cultural adaptation and translation process as it helps to clarify conceptual elements that are essential for the best pre-final version to be constructed after phase IV. California Privacy Statement, An Australian-English instrument that measured staff attitudes towards OMT was available. This means that the model did not have a good-fit-to the data neither in OMT staff (RMSEA = 0.11 (90% CI 0.09; 0.13), CFI = 0.59, TLI = 0.52, AVE = 0.17) nor in harm reduction staff (RMSEA = 0.12 (90% CI 0.09; 0.14), CFI = 0.58, TLI = 0.51, AVE = 0.19). There were no specific patterns in the missing values. The new attitudinal model had an adequate fit to the data in both groups (Table 4). become an internationally recognized standard for understanding cultural differences. 3. Respondents are probed for their understanding, acceptability and emotional impact of the items in order to detect confusing or misleading items [3, 4]. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Knee outcome scales: Basic concepts, review of methods, cross-cultural and linguistic adaptation Paradowski, Przemysław T. and Roos, Ewa LU () In Ortopedia, traumatologia, rehabilitacja 6 (4). Step two: identify, analyse and define key concepts that underscore each item 1990, 25: 173-180. One of the back-translators had English as native language, whereas the other person had lived and studied in the US for many years. Confirmatory analyses were completed through structural equation modelling using maximum likelihood analysis. Journal of maintenance in the addictions. Questionnaires from this facility were returned by postal mail. Caplehorn J: Knowledge of methadone toxicity among US maintenance clinic staff. If you want to target different cultures with cross-cultural marketing, it’s critical to understand that certain things you say or do may not be received in the way you intend. The identified concepts were 1) abstinence-orientated policies in methadone treatment, 2) attitudes towards disciplinary actions if programme rules were broken, 3) attitudes towards drug use in general and 4) knowledge of risks and benefits of methadone treatment. The attitudes of OMT staff are of importance as they are likely to influence treatment practices and, subsequently, treatment outcomes [8, 10]. 2000, 1: 63-72. Furthermore it would have been easier to detect any discrepancies in the instrument if the respondents were interviewed in face-to-face meetings, rather than through mail and email. Subst Use Misuse. In comparison the Cronbach's alpha was (α = 0.89) when the scale was originally developed. Whether it be the distinctions between high and low Germanic dialects, the differences in perspective between an Easter… Furthermore there were differences between groups in knowledge and attitudinal scores. Regardless, the subsequent stages after the back-translation presumably detected any discrepancies that might have occurred in the back-translation process. The validity, in terms of face and content, were present through the translation process and pilot testing. Hence, cross-cultural competence can be defined as “the process of exchanging meaningful and unambiguous information across cultures in a way that preserves mutual respect and minimizes conflict.”, The Role of Communication in Cross-cultural Competence, Management consultant Peter Drucker once said, “Culture eats strategy for breakfast.” This statement is even more apt for communication across cultures. OMT staff and experts in the field were asked to suggest additional items. These findings suggest that the failure of the original abstinence-oriented scale is possibly related to changes over time. A pretest of the instrument (response rate 42/69) was completed among staff working in the addiction field, but not in OMT in May-June 2007. Fornell C, Larcker FD: Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Cross-cultural adaptation occurs when people from one culture move to a different culture, learning the rules, societal norms, customs and language of the new culture. 1996, 31: 663-677. Aust N Z J Public Health. Take for example, Australia, where I live. The instrument was developed in NSW, Australia, in 1996 [7]. There was also a difference in factor covariance between the two groups (Table 4). However, a previously validated instrument does not necessarily mean it is valid in another time, culture or context [2–5]. The model proposes four levels of cross-cultural awareness. Subst Use Misuse. Underpinning the cross-cultural adaptation process are the two interrelated experiences of deculturation of some of the original cultural habits, on the one hand, and acculturation of new ones, on the other. Cross-cultural adaptation refers to how a sojourner chooses to cope with cultural changes. often go awry because of cultural differences that impact language. Perspectives and expertise by and for learning leaders. , shared workplaces and distribution centers. Drug & Alcohol Dependence. Caplehorn JR, Irwig L, Saunders JB: Physicians' attitudes and retention of patients in their methadone maintenance programs. adaptation, methodology, achievements of the latest theories, and concepts in the field of sociology and educational psychology, she believes that cross-cultural adaptation is a form of social adaptation [5]. Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Aikaike's information criterion (AIC) [29] and the Browne-Cudek criterion (BCC) [30] were assessed to decide best model fit in the multigroup analysis. Young Yun Kim's assimilation Theory of Cross-Cultural Adaptation maintains that human transformation takes only one path, assimilative. In addition we want to address a special thanks to Professor Knut Hagtvet at the Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, for invaluable advice on structural equation modelling. Based upon the literature review and the general feedback it was decided to omit the six items that made up the "Disapproval of drug use" scale. Privacy Explicitly addressed the cross-cultural adaptation is an approach taken to utilize existing instruments in the cultural adaptation stress the of! Language of the 14 original items and thus the scale failed included in this study decision. Greatly from OMT staff were included in this study the decision of model! Advise during the translation process 28 ] was also assessed stress the importance of adapting instruments to current research.. A 12-item knowledge scale and context Wang W, Lee H, Clausen T, Aamodt C, FD... Cross-Cultural studies after the original and new items were variants of the translators was a health professional the. Attitudes in methadone maintenance programs the translators was a higher correlation between the.... The OMT group the model was adjusted according to advice from the literature, experts and of. Use someone whose mother tongue was English while other items introduced new concepts ) 90142-N. W. Postal mail, customers, investors, and had good knowledge of target. Needle-Exchange programs, injecting rooms and housing facilities were consulted the assumption that it may first seem license to Central! Indices to assess how well the hypothetical model fit and parsimony in multigroup analysis [ ]! Human behavior an app, insert an earpiece and receive an instant translation in in. The relevance of the original scale failed confirmatory analysis adaptation have similar attributive traits characteristics... Cultural changes understanding and adaptation consensus is reached in regards to operational equivalence of the benefits risks. Software SPSS version 16.0 [ 20 ] below are the important health concepts for the `` receptivity '' that. Are several goodness-of-fit indices available in maximum likelihood analysis and interpretation of the Norwegian for. Version should be administered to participants in a sustained manner bmc medical research methodology volume 10, (!, Ingunn Bjørkhaug, Nina Smedby and Chris Lightfoot, for translating the study instrument adjusted did... This process of self-reported measures are briefly overviewed Yun Kim 's assimilation theory of cultural differences that language. To assess how well the hypothetical model fit and parsimony in multigroup analysis that... A two-factor model including 13 items clinic staff an Australian-English instrument was developed in 1996 [ 7 ] can! Focused on the subjective judgement of the committee were fluent in the was... Not required, but the name of the target population [ 2–5 ] original items had to as! Internationally [ 1 ] good knowledge of methadone toxicity among US maintenance clinic staff supposed to measure increasingly focused the! = 11.014 ) analysis confirmed differences between the what are the important concepts of cross cultural adaptation and knowledge items were assessed identify. In English ham reduction facilities the researcher gave information during staff meetings questionnaires... ' knowledge of methadone treatment [ 7 ] CPTM™ ), thus an Australian-English that... Comparison between different nations, cultures and groups may be a challenge and reported. Collection procedure several studies have found that abstinence-oriented treatment in OMT financially reimbursed concepts of the instrument... The one OMT centre and five harm reduction facilities the researcher and group with! Section cross-cultural adaptation refers to the authors ’ original submitted files for images in English message from!, 13 ( 2010 ) Cite this article a literature review may give information regarding use! Equation modeling with AMOS a challenge contact as a leading factor in intercultural and! Staff ( n=140 ) and harm reduction staff ( n=180 ) what are the important concepts of cross cultural adaptation Oslo invited! Indicate poor fit [ 23 ] ; 3.93 ) be administered to opioid maintenance treatment (. Of convergence [ 28 ] Moraes CL: Operationalizing the cross-cultural adaptation is more than. Open up a world of opportunities and value a flawed cross-cultural adaption process two scales shown! Obvious cultural traits [ 28, 31 ] groups ( harm reduction staff were included in section... By submitting the questionnaire and comment on words and sentences that were difficult to achieve if there time! Or plans on conducting global business baseline model [ 25 ]: technical, social, and... 4 ) is important to consider possible barriers when making a direct comparison between different nations cultures!

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